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  • Biosecurity is the process of detecting and controlling unwanted crop weeds, pests and diseases. Agriculture and the natural environment are very important to New Zealand’s economy. We have a unique but fragile natural ecosystem, which developed without many of the pests that are common elsewhere in the world. Being a remote group of islands, we can potentially prevent entry of unwanted pests and avoid problems associated with damaging pests and diseases.

    Rights: Ports of Auckland

    Biosecurity inspection

    A MAF officer inspecting a shipping container. All goods and produce imported into New Zealand must be thoroughly checked by MAF officials to ensure there are no unwanted stowaways on board. This is a very important biosecurity step as it is much easier to prevent the arrival of pests than it is to control them after they have arrived.

    Animals and plants that are not pests in another country may become a problem if they are released into another environment. Humans settling in New Zealand have brought with them plants and animals that are not native, which have had a very damaging impact on the environment. For example, early European settlers brought with them rabbits for meat. With no natural predators, rabbits were able to quickly breed to very high numbers. Stoats and ferrets were then introduced to kill rabbits, but they also killed native birds – now they have to be trapped to prevent kiwi and other birds from extinction. A plant or animal that is introduced to a new environment where it has no competitors may be able to rapidly take over and be very difficult to remove once established.

    Rights: Ministry for Primary Industries, CC BY 4.0.

    Foot and mouth disease lesion

    A foot and mouth disease lesion on the tongue of a cow. This disease is one of the most highly infectious livestock diseases. It can infect 'cloven-hooved' animals – in New Zealand this would include cows, sheep, pigs, horses and llama. New Zealand remains free of foot and mouth disease, but an outbreak here would cause significant losses for agriculture.

    Biosecurity risks

    New Zealand is in the fortunate position of being free of most disease-carrying mosquitoes, and serious animal diseases such as rabies, scrapie, foot and mouth disease and BSE (mad cow disease). The bacterial disease Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) was discovered in July 2017. The New Zealand Government and private sector partners are attempting to eradicate the disease.

    Pests and diseases like these pose serious threats to our economy, environment, health and cultural identity. An outbreak of a disease in livestock, such as foot and mouth disease, could cost the economy $10 billion. Thousands of jobs would be put at risk, and the economy would take years to recover. New Zealand’s natural habitats are also important for tourism, fishing and recreation but are at risk from plants and animals that might thrive and push out native species.

    There are biosecurity threats from:

    • invasive plants (weeds)
    • diseases of plants (fungi, viruses and insects)
    • diseases of bees (varroa mites)
    • risks to the marine or freshwater environment (starfish larvae in ship ballast, didymo)
    • risks to native ecosystems (brush-tailed possum, stoats, introduced plants)
    • diseases of animals (mad cow disease, foot and mouth disease).
    Rights: Dr Yanping Chen, USDA-ARS

    Deformed bee wing virus

    The deformed bee wing virus can mean bees are malformed and die, or are less productive than unaffected bees.

    Biosecurity in practice

    For most people, the most obvious example of biosecurity activity is the specially trained beagles that are used at New Zealand airports to detect foods carried by passengers that may have a biosecurity risk. By bringing in food from overseas, you may also be bringing in any diseases or insects that live in that food.

    Four main organisations are involved in biosecurity:

    • Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI)
    • Department of Conservation (DOC)
    • Fisheries New Zealand
    • Ministry of Health (MOH).
    Rights: Public domain

    Brown marmorated stink bug

    The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) is a serious crop pest and a biosecurity risk to New Zealand. They can infest horticultural crops (i.e. apples, corn, wine grapes, kiwifruit and a range of stone fruit varieties), causing damage to flowers, stems, leaves and fruit of host plants. Fortunately strict import rules have made it harder for live BMSB to enter New Zealand on risky cargo such as vehicles, machinery and parts.

    Taxonomists and taxonomic collections are important for identifying pests and diseases.

    Preventing pests

    It can be very difficult to eliminate an unwanted pest species once it is in the environment, so it is preferable to prevent pests entering the country in the first place. Biosecurity checks carried out by Customs staff at ports and airports are therefore very important. Passengers arriving at New Zealand airports and ports are checked for fruit or fresh foods that may bring with them plant insects or diseases. Boats carrying cargo are checked carefully by Customs officials to make sure there are no unwanted stowaways in the form of rats or insects.

    Rights: © arpugh, iNaturalist, CC-BY-NC-SA

    Gum leaf skeletoniser

    The Australian insect, the gum leaf skeletoniser (Uraba lugens) arrived in Auckland in the early 2000s. They're now wide spread through-out the top and middle of the North Island with populations in Nelson in the South Island. The caterpillar is capable of devouring large amounts of gum leaves and exposure to the hairs of the caterpillar and their shed skins can cause an itchy raised rash on people.

    New Zealand is unique in being free from certain diseases of livestock that are common elsewhere, and maintaining this disease-free status is important to the value of New Zealand produce. The transport of pets and livestock is very carefully controlled to prevent the spread of animal diseases. Animals have to be shown to be disease-free and may have to be kept in isolation for a period on entering the country to make sure they are not carrying disease (quarantine), and they are tracked throughout their life in New Zealand.

    There are specific standards for importation of all different fruits and vegetables from different parts of the world that may carry particular pests. Also, crops must not carry soil with them that may contain damaging pests and diseases.

    Nature of science

    Biosecurity is a good example of how evidence-based scientific conclusions can result in direct action.

    There is increasing pressure on the systems in place to maintain biosecurity due to increasing levels of imports (up 76% in the last decade) and tourism (up 93% in the last decade). As well as increasing the number of staff who can perform checks on imports, technology has developed that allows scientists to detect the presence of pests in random samples taken from large quantities of imported produce.

    Related content

    In November 2010, the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. Actinidiae (Psa) was discovered in a Te Puke kiwifruit orchard. Things looked grim for the kiwifruit industry. Find out how Plant & Food Research and industry partners fought the disease and returned New Zealand's kiwifruit production to full strength in the article Kiwifruit – learning to live with Psa. The article includes an interactive timeline of events, including links to the nature of science.

    Discover some of the research in biosecurity being undertaken in New Zealand.

    New Zealand's Biological Heritage – Ngā Koiora Tuku Iho is the National Science Challenge responsible for protecting and enhancing biodiversity and biosecurity of Aotearoa.

    Dogs play an important role in protecting New Zealand borders through the Ministry for Primary Industries Detector Dog Programme. Dogs are also well established detectors in conservation work. Now they’re being trained to detect American foulbrood disease in honey bee colonies.

    New Zealand needs to up its biosecurity game to protect the country from the next devastating pest threat, writes Dr Ang McGaughran in this article from The Conversation.

    The Science Learning Hub team has curated a collection of resources with biosecurity as the context for learning. Login to make this collection part of your private collection, just click on the copy icon. You can then add additional content, notes, share and collaborate. Find out more about creating collection.

    Useful links

    Visit the New Zealand government biosecurity website.

    This podcast series from Plant & Food Research explores how innovative science is pushing boundaries to protect borders, eradicate incursions and deal with disease.

    In December 2020 a new online tool, the Official New Zealand Pest Register (ONZPR), was launched with the goal of helping to protect Aotearoa from more than 24,000 biosecurity threats and support exporters selling Kiwi produce to the world. The Pest Register is a searchable database of pests regulated in New Zealand and includes general information about each pest.

    The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) is a serious pest for over 400 different plant species. It is currently not found in New Zealand but if it ever is, the best chance we have to eradicate it is early detection to increase our chance of stopping it. This course from SPS Biosecurity will help you to learn about biosecurity and what a brown marmorated stink bug looks like. It will also teach you what to do if you ever think you’ve found one of these bugs. Though the course is aimed at adults, anyone intermediate age up could do it.

    This classroom module for marine biosecurity is designed for years 5-8 to help them understand the role they play in protecting our coastlines. It is provided in both Google Docs and as printable PDFs so that it's easy for teachers to use. Part 3 uses the Marine Metre Squared project.

      Published 9 September 2008, Updated 22 February 2022 Referencing Hub articles
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