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  • Illustration by Isobel Te Aho-White from article Te Tapa Ingoa.
    Rights: Crown Copyright Published 15 June 2023 Size: 350 KB Referencing Hub media

    In te ao Māori, all species are related through whakapapa or kinship relationships. In Māori creation stories, everything in the universe is related back to Ranginui, the sky father and Papatūānuku, the earth mother. This framework binds us all through whakapapa.

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